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USAA CASE ANALYSIS

Jennifer Young

MBA 617 Organizational Theory for Managers

March 4, 2016

Organizational Description

USAA is a financial services company formed in 1922 by 25 army officers who had difficulty obtaining insurance policies due to frequent moves and extended periods of travel.  Creating the company allowed them to reduce costs and obtain a policy that fit their needs.  Membership quickly grew and was expanded in 1924, 1973 and 1996.  Membership is currently open to all active duty, retired, honorably discharged, dependents, or widows of the Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, National Guard, and Reserves (USAA, 2016)  (USAA, 2012).

The company has expanded based on the evolving needs of its members to six divisions including property and casualty insurance, life insurance and annuities, investment products, investment advice and services, banking, and customer service oriented shopping and discount assistance (USAA, 2016).  Their mission statement reflects their history and direction perfectly “USAA’s mission is to facilitate the financial security of its members, associates and their families by providing a full range of highly competitive financial products and services.  In so doing, we seek to be the provider of choice for the military community. (USAA, 2016)”

USAA’s main headquarters is located in a sprawling compound in San Antonio, Texas.  Supporting offices and financial centers are located in 11 additional states and two overseas locations.   These offices help increase the company’s visibility and supports their geographically diverse membership.  Partnered with a strong, technologically advanced online presence, USAA works to overcome any accessibility hurdles that their current and potential members may encounter.

The financial services industry is an extremely large, fast-growing industry that requires flexibility, innovation, adaption, and change.  According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of private industry members ranged from 473,246 to 478,715 between the 3rd quarter of 2014 and the 2nd quarter of 2015 (United States Department of Labor, 2016).  Successful companies must be able to develop new services based on the need of the customers, be efficient, and easily accessible.  Most importantly, a financial services vendor must be stable.  Customers will not trust a company if they do not consistently provide value, exemplary service, and consistently reduced costs (Claessens, 2009).

USAA’s most significant competitors include Geico, METLIFE, Inc., State Farm, Navy Federal Credit Union, Armed Services Mutual Benefit Association, Bank of America – Military Bank, The Allstate Corporation, and USI Insurance Services, LLC.  A number of these competitors began as a military focused-organization, but most have diversified their membership.  None of these competitors offer the full-range of services that USAA provides to their members.

USAA has a flat organizational complexity classification.  There are three managerial levels, seven distinct administrative support divisions, and three corporate divisions  (USAA, 2016).  The breadth of the organization indicates that tasks are highly specialized to provide enhanced services, yet the low number of managerial levels is defined as low vertical integration.  Front line workers are granted the ability to make decisions based on focused policy, strategy, and guidance through oversight and monitoring.

USAA has more than 27,000 employees throughout the United States and an 8% annual turnover rate.  The low turnover rate, high employee satisfaction, and staunch loyalty have been praised by various publications (USAA, 2016).  USAA recruits former military, dependents, and recent college graduates to build a workforce that supports the culture and values of the organization.  The benefits that USAA offers, to include school tuition, medical care, fitness resources, and flexible schedules, attracts an average of 56 applicants per opening (Great Place to Work Institute, 2016).  The company often promotes internally before recruiting externally demonstrating their value of employee knowledge, experience, innovation, and commitment (Fortune, 2015).

USAA is faced with limited financial resources due to private ownership, continued evolving technological requirements, fluctuations in regulations and the economy, and high competition.  The organization may be facing substantial hurdles in the near future.  In order for the company to remain successful, they need to identify the potential weaknesses, threats, and opportunities they will face and devise solutions that will help them remain viable, and capable of shifting to meet ever changing consumer needs.

USAA has continued to surprise customers, competition, and the founders with its growth and success.  I expect the company to continue to evolve to fit needs and devise surprising solutions that will keep it at the forefront of the financial services industry.  I believe that USAA will hone in on the things it does the best and excel in those areas by expanding offerings and shifting organizational structure to enhance communication and functionality.

Analysis

USAA’s current organizational complexity does not fit its structural configuration.  The organization strives to be efficient and effective.  They are good at analyzing situations and overcoming obstacles with innovation and technology.  These characteristics would align them with a type 4 organization, but their environment is a type 2.  While their configuration fits the type 2 classification, their organizational complexity is a type 3.  In order to become a truly effective organization, one poised for continued success, they need to determine who they are and what their strategic goals should be.  Due to the high competition in the financial services industry, USAA should strive to become a type 4 organization.

Environment

            The insurance industry is classified as a varied environment, but USAA’s expansion into other financial service areas has increased its competition and market volatility.  The environment should be reclassified as turbulent and USAA needs to prepare itself for increased competition.  They must be prepared to implement changes at a fast pace in order to respond to changes in the industry.  They need to enhance their marketing, quality of products, product offerings, and efficiency in customer service.  USAA clings tightly to the military link and has been successful, but this historical attachment may limit them in the future.

Configuration

            USAA currently has a functional organization where tasks are specialized to increase the efficiency of completion.  Employees are grouped based on their skills and each division handles a very different portion of the business.  When customers call, if they have more than one concern, they are often transferred between multiple departments in order to get their questions answered and business completed.  This decreases customer satisfaction, increases the amount of time it takes to service customers, and leads to higher labor costs.  Changing the organizational configuration could increase customer satisfaction, reduce labor costs, and increase efficiency and effectiveness.

Organizational Complexity

            USAA has a flat organizational complexity.  Based on the needs of the organization, this complexity classification does not serve the company well.  Communication within the company is based on policy and strategy, but the company should be focused on specific task operations which are the profit generating components of the business.  This means that only one department can do each specific task and customer demands cannot be handled simultaneously.  It makes the company both inefficient and ineffective.

Recommendation 1

            USAA needs to shift their organizational structure to a matrix organization.  In this new structure, the executive vice president would be in charge of all product service units.  The presidents for each subunit would report directly to the CEO.  The administrative vice presidents would work with each unit simultaneously ensuring required resources for continued operation.  This new structure would allow USAA to meet multiple demands from customers with one single point of contact.  This structure would also allow the employees to develop and diversify their skills in order to be flexible to changing demands in the industry.

            This new configuration would alter the complexity classification of USAA.  The reduced number of middle managers would allow information to be more easily exchanged.  Faster communication would mean more time is available to focus on specific value tasks.  The company could focus on breaking down tasks to an elementary level and the cross training of employees would mean that multiple employees could do related work at the same time reducing overall labor costs and necessary oversight from supervisors.

Recommendation 2

            USAA has only reached 10.7 million customers out of a potential market of 60 million (Jeffrey, 2015) (Nordman, 2013).  The question is, why is the company not reaching those other 49.7 million potential clients?  Currently USAA has distinct marketing materials for each unit of their business.  Marketing campaigns are not integrated and they are focused more on the peripheral services as opposed to the traditional insurance business where USAA excels in both customer satisfaction, value, and historical experience.

Marketing needs to work closely with a team comprised of individuals from all service units.  Their primary goal should be to reach individuals who need their unique insurance programs.  Once members are acquired, the marketing campaign can be evolved to include the other services.  USAA should examine marketing venues to find the ones that work best for their customers.  Commercials are an expensive and widely overlooked marketing choice.  Marketing through social media campaigns, search engines, and print publications should be evaluated to ensure that the appropriate venues are being used to reach their unique target market.

Recommendation 3

            USAA has become so diversified that they have switched their focus to financial services rather than insurance.  Insurance is where they have the most experience, success, and highest ratings in customer service satisfaction.  This service unit has the highest number of active members out of all other units.  USAA needs to maximize their services in this area to maintain current customers and be more attractive to potential customers.

            USAA strives to be on the technological forefront.  In the insurance industry it is important that the company be able to quickly, and accurately, gather information about claims.  They need to process claims quickly, and attend to the needs of their customers.  Improving their mobile app to allow for more detailed imaging, faster uploads to the company database, quicker review by claims adjustors, immediate electronic payment to USAA customer banking accounts, and arrangements with rental vehicle providers to deliver temporary transportation would all improve the customer service experience.

            While these changes to the current claims process would incur additional costs at the beginning, the enhanced customer service will build loyalty and attract customers away from competitors.  Once customers are integrated into the USAA family, it is much easier to convince them to diversify into USAA’s other financial services offerings.  Membership will increase and new premiums will offset costs incurred during the transitioning of the claims processes.

Implementation

The recommendation that I would provide the highest endorsement to is recommendation number 2.  USAA’s private status limits their financial opportunities.  The only way they can increase their net income is to increase the number of clients or raise fees.  Raising fees will only cause current clients to switch companies for lower rates.  Since they have a targeted market, they need to work extremely hard to make sure they are the vendor of choice.  A commitment from management, coupled with a cross-functional team that is knowledgeable about all aspects of the insurance business will insure that the marketing focus is placed on insurance and the appropriate marketing venues are being utilized.

In order to implement this new marketing strategy, the chief executive officer must meet with the executive council and review financials and membership ratios from the last several years.  The forecast for membership growth and profitability should be examined and compared with previous forecasts versus actual performance.  Examining these numbers will demonstrate the importance of increasing profitability and its link to membership growth.  Once these metrics have been examined, there should be buy-in from the executive council.

The executive council should identify the individuals in their units that possess the most knowledge regarding their specific unit as well as service details that lead to successful retention and conversion of potential customers.  This working group would partner with marketing professional in the organization, and potential outside ad agencies, to develop new campaigns that target the insurance offerings and highlight USAA’s strategic advantages.

Once the membership starts to grow, the executive council can switch focus to improving customer service, costs, and capitalizing on technological innovations.  Obtaining clients, keeping the ones you have, and making people happy with excellent customer service will only improve USAA’s standing and success in the financial services industry.

References

Claessens, S. (2009). Competition in the Financial Sector: Overview of Competition Policies. Retrieved from International Monetary Fund: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2009/wp0945.pdf

Fortune. (2015). USAA. Retrieved from 100 Best Companies to Work For: http://fortune.com/best-companies/usaa-33/

Great Place to Work Institute. (2016). USAA. Retrieved from Great Place to Work: http://reviews.greatplacetowork.com/usaa

Jeffrey, T. P. (2015, September 8). 21,005,000 to 12,329,000: Government Employees Outnumber Manufacturing Employees 1.8 to 1. Retrieved from CNS News: http://cnsnews.com/news/article/terence-p-jeffrey/21955000-12329000-government-employees-outnumber-manufacturing

Nordman, D. (2013, March 25). USAA and Membership Growth. Retrieved from The Military Guide: http://the-military-guide.com/2013/03/25/usaa-and-membership-growth/

Schumer, B. &. (2010). Bloomberg/Schumer Financial Services Competitiveness Report Fact Sheet. Retrieved from Greg Wilson Consulting: http://gregwilsonconsulting.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/BloombergSchumerPressHandout.pdf

United States Department of Labor. (2016). Industries at a Glance. Retrieved from Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/iag/tgs/iag52.htm

USAA. (2012). Retrieved from Company Histories: http://www.company-histories.com/USAA-Company-History.html

USAA. (2014). We the Members – 2014 Report to Members. Retrieved from USAA: https://content.usaa.com/mcontent/static_assets/Media/report-to-member-2014.pdf?cacheid=1896096673_p

USAA. (2016). Awards and Rankings. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/about_usaa_corporate_overview_awards_and_rankings

USAA. (2016). Executive Council. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/about_usaa_corporate_governance_executive_council?akredirect=true

USAA. (2016). History. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/pages/about_usaa_corporate_overview_history

USAA. (2016). Operating Companies. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/pages/newsroom_factsheets_main

USAA. (2016). Our Mission and Values. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaajobs.com/about-usaa/mission-and-values.html

Appendix

Organizational Chart

 

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Money on the Mind

downloadThe Money on the Mind video was an eye opener for me.  The video features the work of two Berkeley researchers who were investigating the apparent link between wealth and unseemly behavior.  The authors noted a few interesting points.

  1. Individuals with a higher level of income tend to have a lower level of concern for others.
  2. Individuals with a higher level of income tend to have higher incidences of unseemly behavior.
  3. Individuals with a higher income are more likely to lie, endorse unethical behavior, and lack empathy in comparison to those with a moderate or low income level.

These results have been highly challenged by the research community due to the liberal nature of Berkeley and how the results disparage the wealthy and powerful.  Berkeley has fired back with a documented 30 studies and more than a thousand participants in which these results were duplicated.

The question I am faced with today is how does the content of the video relate to decision making within an organization?  I have pondered my response for a few days, discussed it with my spouse, and here is what I have decided.  The results of the study translate very specifically to decision making in the workplace.  As an individual takes on positions of increased responsibility and pay, they begin to act differently.  In my experience, the majority of these individuals begin to exhibit the same type of behavior that the Berkeley scientists documented during their study.  The individuals conduct themselves in ways that make others think they don’t care about them or will do, or say, whatever is necessary to get the job done.

These individuals often forget how they felt when they were on the front line, or that they did not get to the position of power themselves.  They forget that it wasn’t only their talent that allowed them to excel in their position.  When individuals behave like this, they tend to lose the loyalty and trust of their employees.  Employee performance diminishes, chances of unethical behavior increases, and generally the culture of the company spirals downward.

We know there is a problem, but can we do anything about it?  Knowing the facts is half the battle.  If individuals who possess wealth, power, and decision making ability read these studies and can truly place the magnifying glass in front of themselves they might be able to see how their own behavior has been modified by those status changes.  These individuals might be able to change their behavior to go against the grain of those around and before them.

Culture Exercise

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Clan Culture – 8 Points

Adaptability Culture – 14 Points

Mission Culture – 11 Points

Bureaucratic Culture – 3 Points

The lowest score I received was in the category of bureaucratic culture.  I am a highly focused individual who likes stability, efficiency, set policies, regulations, and consistency.  It does not surprise me that I was categorized in this area.  Having read the cultural descriptions I would have easily placed myself in the same category.  The organization that I currently work at is certainly not a bureaucratic culture, but my specific job duties play well into this culture making it a good fit for my personality as well as an important preference to ensure that my job is done correctly to assist with the success of the organization.

The highest score that I received was the adaptability culture.  This classification was as expected as my lowest score.  When changes occur in my environment it makes me uncomfortable.  I fight change, am very firm in my beliefs, and it takes me a long time to accept new ideas.  I do not consider myself creative and truly feel uncomfortable when given tasks that involve this component.  The organization that I work at is well known for their adaptability and it has forced me to confront these personal stumbling blocks.  Through doing this I have seen some of the wonderful things that come out of constant change such as department success, strong group cohesiveness, and excitement at opportunities that helps the department and the institution as a whole.

USAA Organizational Complexity

Complex-Maze.png

How complex is your organization internally?

 USAA has three managerial levels in the organization consisting of the chief executive officer, executive vice presidential staff, and presidents of corporate divisions.  The seven executive vice presidents and the three divisional presidents all report directly to the CEO.  In addition, the division presidents rely on the executive vice presidents and their staff for resources (USAA, 2016).

There are seven distinct administrative support divisions and three corporate divisions in USAA (USAA, 2016).  This breadth indicates that tasks are highly specialized in each area to provide enhanced services in those areas.  This differentiation strategy is considered high differentiation.  There are two to three levels in the organizational chart depending on how the organizational structure is interpreted.  Regardless of the number of levels that individuals identify, two to three levels is considered low vertical integration.

USAA would be classified as flat in terms of organizational complexity.  There are few managers between the top executives and workers on the front line of the organization.  Lower level workers are granted the ability to make decisions based on focused policy, strategy, and guidance through oversight and monitoring.  The technology interfaces utilized by workers guide them through decision making processes and automatically provide options for customers based on existing, and revised, customer data.

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Locate your organization on the figure, what is the complexity?

USAA is located on the bottom right quadrant of the Organizational Complexity chart.  Characterized as flat, USAA has high horizontal differentiation and low vertical differentiation with two to three levels of management and ten distinct areas of corporate responsibility.  The executive vice presidents and corporate division presidents convey the desires of the CEO and board of directors to the front-line employees who have well-defined roles and responsibilities, aided by a focused set of rules and regulations, to guide in the decision-making process.

Does your organization’s complexity fit its structural configuration?

 USAA’s structural configuration can be classified as functional.  “All activities in the organization are grouped together by common function from the bottom to the top of the organization (Daft, 2008).”  The CEO oversees specialized departments that focus on their core duties which allows them to build knowledge and skills within the organization.

uu.jpgIs there “fit” across the organization’s components? What do we know now about how our organization aligns across these categories?  What would make them more effective?  Should your organization change its structure based on its complexity?

 USAA’s organizational components do not fit across the areas of configuration, environment, strategy types, organizational goals, and organizational complexity.  Previous analysis of the company has classified the environment as varied with an analyzer with innovation strategy, and an organizational goal of efficiency and effectiveness.  These categorizations did not align, but based on the operational goals of the company their current operational style fits their needs and provides them with the ability to adapt as needed.  The organizational complexity was surprising, but it seems to fit the eclectic makeup of this successful company.

Works Cited

Daft, R. L. (2008). Organization Theory and Design. Mason: Cengage Learning.

USAA. (2016). Executive Council. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/about_usaa_corporate_governance_executive_council

 

USAA Environmental Complexity

complexity-uncertainty-in-environmental-indicators-2-638

How turbulent is your company’s environment, and how well do they adapt?  List out as many elements affecting your company as you can for each of the sectors below.

 Industry (Competitors, Industry Size, Competitiveness, and Related Industries)

Competitors

USAA’s most significant competitors include Geico, METLIFE, Inc., State Farm, Navy Federal Credit Union, Armed Services Mutual Benefit Association, Bank of America – Military Bank, The Allstate Corporation, and USI Insurance Services, LLC.  A number of these competitors began as a military focused-organization, but most have diversified their membership.  None of these competitors offer the full-range of services that USAA provides to their members.

Industry Size

 The financial services industry is extremely large.  According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the number of private industry members ranged from 473,246 to 478,715 between the 3rd quarter of 2014 and the 2nd quarter of 2015 (Labor, 2016).  According to Bloomberg and Schumer, this sector of the economy represents 8% of the US Gross Domestic Product and more than 5% of overall jobs.  This is a large, high-growth industry (Senate).

Competitiveness

The level of competitiveness in the industry is defined by the large number of players and how well they perform in a number of areas.  Financial Services is a fast-growing industry that requires flexibility, innovation, adaptation, and change.  The companies must be able to develop new services based on the needs of their customers, be efficient, and easily accessible.  One of the most important aspects of financial services is stability.  Customers will not trust a company if they do not consistently provide value, exemplary service, and consistently reduced costs (Claessens, 2009).

Related Industries

USAA’s broad offerings allow it to relate to multiple industries.  USAA is involved in personal and business banking, health insurance, investments, life insurance and annuities, as well as property and casual insurance.  They offer financial advice and retirement planning services.  Recent diversification has added alliances with military organizations, rental car agencies, travel, vehicle dealerships, and realtors expanding their related industry list regardless of the lack of direct linkages (USAA, 2016).

Raw Materials (Suppliers, Real Estate, and Services)

 Suppliers

USAA has a long list of suppliers and partners.  In 2013, they recognized 11 distinct vendors based on their innovation, veteran support, and performance (USAA, 2014).  These suppliers include:

  • CVM Solutions – Supplier Diversity and Vendor Management
  • Caliber Collision – Auto Body Repair and Paint Shop
  • Cartus – Global Relocation Services
  • Humana – Health Insurance and Benefits
  • Nuance – Computer Software
  • RR Donnelley – Print, Digital and Supply Chain Solutions
  • AT&T – Telecommunications
  • Safelite – Windshield Repair and Replacement
  • Xactware – Insurance Estimating Software
  • Adecco – Human Resource Consulting
  • Enterprise Rent-a-car – Car Rental
  • TCS – IT Services, Consulting and Business Solutions

A more comprehensive list of suppliers can be found at the Spiderbook website.

Real Estate

USAA maintains 250 ATM machines throughout the United States at no transaction cost for members.  USAA members can also use any nationwide ATM and receive a reimbursement up to $15 per month for usage fees (USAA, 2016).

USAA maintains financial centers in 11 states to include California, Colorado, Washington DC, Georgia, Kansas, New York, North Carolina, Maryland, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.  The headquarters is located in San Antonio, TX.  This headquarters, and the majority of the financial centers, are independently owned and designed for efficiency to demonstrate USAA’s commitment to the environment (USAA, USAA, 2016).

Services

USAA provides insurance, banking, investment, retirement, real estate, and services to former and current military members as well as their dependents.

Human Resources (Labor Market, Universities, and Unions)

Labor Market

USAA had more than 27,000 employees throughout the United States and an 8% annual turnover rate.  USAA recruits former military, military dependents, and recent college graduates in order to build a workforce that supports the culture and value of the organization.  The benefits that USAA offers, to include school tuition, medical care, fitness resources, and flexible schedules, attracts an average of 56 employees per opening.  The company values experience and commitment, and often promotes jobs internally before recruiting externally (Fortune, 2015).

USAA works with Adecco for their human resources consulting.  Currently, the organization is split into four distinct career areas with specialized positions within those areas.  The main areas include customer service and sales, financial planning and investments, information technology, as well as risk management/compliance/audit (USAA, Career Areas at USAA, 2016).

Universities

USAA actively recruits emerging talent from nationwide universities.  In 2016, USAA expects to hire 300 summer interns and 300 new graduates.  This is an unprecedented number which demonstrates USAA’s interest in tapping new talent and emerging innovators.  Students are vetted based on their educational history, GPA, work experience, and extra-curricular activities.

The internships consist of 10 weeks of on-the-job training, professional development activities, and presentations to organizational leaders.  Mentors are assigned to the interns who receive a housing stipend and the opportunity to participate in organized picnics, sports activities, and volunteering opportunities.  There are main internship areas, but the flexibility of the company allows for more opportunities based on intern interests and the needs of USAA (USAA, University Recruiting, 2016).

Unions

USAA is a privately owned company.  While it does follow the rules and regulations for employees set by the Federal government, it does not have any unionized employees.

Financial Resources (Stock Markets, Banks, and Private Investors)

Stock Markets

USAA is a privately-owned company.  It is not listed on the stock market or traded publicly.

Banks

USAA’s banking division offers checking, savings, credit cards, and certificates of deposits.  Their certificate of deposit accounts have a low investment threshold and an increasing interest rate based on level of investment.  The bank offers auto, personal, and home loans.  Their rates are comparably as low, or lower, than competitors and they offer up to 100% financing on homes as well as new and used vehicles.  Their USAA Real Estate Rewards Network and USAA Car Buying Service provide discounts, and rewards that lower the contract price of offset initial investments (USAA, Join a bank that saves you money., 2016).

Private Investors

USAA is a privately owned company.  The company was formed by 25 army officers in 1922.  The company has remained private and the list of current owners are not available on the main website or in searches.   The company retains very limited profits and continues to reinvest in services, growth, and cost reduction for their members.

Market (Customers)

Customers

The current customer base of USAA consists of more than 10.6 million members.  Membership is open to former military, current military, military widows, and military dependents.  USAA is based solely in the United States and honors military service through the Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force, National Guard, Reserves, and Coast Guard.  Membership is also available to ROTC members and officer candidates within 24 months of their commission (USAA, Who Can Join, 2016).

Technology (Information Technology, and e-Commerce)

Information Technology

USAA maintains a membership of United States military affiliated individuals, but those individuals are very transient.  With the necessity to serve overseas for extended periods, be out of contact at unplanned times, and be frequent nomads, it is important that the services they provides reaches their customers where they need it and when they need it.

USAA is a pioneer of mobile check deposit, web banking, and phone banking.  They readily invest in technological improvements and implement technologies that are beneficial to their customer base before being copied by their competitors. Voice recognition and biometric account protection are the most recent innovations to be instituted by USAA (Adams, 2012).

E-Commerce

USAA’s limited physical locations and widespread client base necessitates a company that relies heavily on e-commerce.  It has a solid web presence fully integrated for use on desktops, laptops, and mobile devices.  Individuals can sign up for an account, receive quotes, transfer money, apply for loans, or take part in any number of reward and discount programs available on the website.

Economic Conditions (Recession, Unemployment Rate, Inflation Rate, and Growth)

Recession

A recession would have a negative impact on the viability of USAA.  Services which fluctuate based on interest trends include investments in CDs, retirement planning, and home/auto loans.  These trends would translate to less investment and a lower demand for loans.  These individuals may keep their money with USAA, but will do so in low risk sectors such as savings which will lead to overall decreased interest profits.

Unemployment Rate

 Unemployment rates frequently rise in a recession as there is a lesser demand for consumer goods.  General unemployment rates would mean lower discretionary income to invest, spend, or save.

Inflation Rate

As the rate of inflation rises, USAA may be forced to raise interest rates on loans and investment opportunities.  As the rates are raised, USAA will be faced with more competition from the open market and a smaller client base seeking those financial services.

Growth

Economic growth will translate to increased revenues for USAA.  Individuals will make more money, spend more money, and invest more money in the services USAA provides.  The growth will translate into a higher net profit and more dividends to clients to offset costs even more.  This cyclical effect will continue to grow to benefit both the company and their client base.

Government (Laws, Regulations, and Taxes)

Laws and Regulations

 USAA is governed by city and state laws in the locations of their 19 facilities.  In addition, all USAA business is regulated by the Federal laws related to financial services industry.

Taxes

USAA is privately owned which exempts them from the reporting requirements of publicly traded companies.  The organization prepares a yearly report which it disseminates to its members.  This report includes information about all revenue, expenditures, and taxes.  In 2014, USAA reported a tax rate of approximately 21%.  This rate fluctuates based on pretax income but has varied between 15% and 24% over the last three fiscal years (USAA, Report to Members, 2015).

Sociocultural (Age, Mission, Values, Beliefs, Education, Religion, Work Ethic, Consumer, and Green Movements)

Age

USAA services are marketed towards customers of all ages.  While service eligibility is limited to a specific target audience, their wide range of services attracts individuals of all ages and backgrounds.

Mission and Values

“USAA’s mission is to facilitate the financial security of its members, associates, and their families by providing a full range of highly competitive financial products and services.  In so doing, we seek to be the provider of choice for the military community.

We do this by upholding the highest standards and ensuring that our corporate business activities and individual employee conduct reflect good judgment and common sense, and are consistent with our core values of Service, Loyalty, Honesty and Integrity.  Our values mirror those of the military community and our membership, and form the foundation on which we perform our work and conduct ourselves. (USAA, Career Areas at USAA, 2016)”

Education

USAA is a strong supporter of education.  Their internship and university recruiting efforts provide opportunities for students to build their career, skills, and experience.

Religion

USAA is not affiliated with any specific religion of ethnic group.  They do not support specific religious causes.  Their targeted membership and pro-military stance places this company in a more republican political position, however, it does not publicize any such preference.

Work Ethics

USAA’s Code of Business Ethics and Conduct includes components of service, loyalty, honesty, and integrity (USAA, Career Areas at USAA, 2016).

Service

  • We serve those who protect our freedoms every day, in everything we do.
  • We are responsive to our members’ needs.
  • We listen closely, show empathy and act swiftly.
  • We consistently ask more of ourselves and do more than is required.
  • We exhibit an entrepreneurial spirit – improving, adapting and innovating – to make our members’ lives easier.

Loyalty 

  • We are a community that respects and supports one another in the belief that more is possible when we work together.
  • We have an undivided commitment to members because, as an association, our first responsibility is answering to them.
  • We support our members no matter what their stage of life.
  • We wholeheartedly contribute to the communities in which we live and work.

Honesty 

  • We are truthful and candid in everything we do.
  • We are clear in our communications and transparent about our intentions.
  • We have a workplace that is open and respectful.
  • We believe that individuals must have the courage to express their point of view, even in the face of opposition.

 Integrity 

  • We hold ourselves to the highest standards and do the right thing.
  • We stand by our word, deliver on our promises and honor our commitments.
  • We put members’ interests first and make decisions that serve them well.

 Consumer

USAA has a number of initiatives to support their consumers.  They are strong military advocates who support military communities and provides financial transition assistance.  Volunteering by USAA employees is encouraged and the financial advisors provide free services to help people relocate and successfully move from the military to civilian life.

Green Movements

 USAA makes sustainability a priority.  Their work includes energy conservation, recycling, air quality, and water efforts.  This commitment is demonstrated by their ENERGY STAR, and LEED certifications as well as their success metrics.  They are ranked in the top 40 largest users of renewable power, have cut their waste and fuel usage by 29%, and their consumption of water has declined by 2 million gallons since 2008 (USAA, Environmental Commitment, 2016).

International (Competition from and Acquisition by Foreign Firms, Entry into Overseas Markets, Foreign Customs and Regulations, and Exchange Rate)

Competition From and Acquisition by Foreign Firms

USAA is a privately owned company.  It has demonstrated no commitment to becoming publicly traded.  Based on their profit and loss statements, USAA is in no immediate financial exigency where they would need to hold a public offering.  Their focus on the specific United States military target market, limits interest to foreign firms.  Investment in the company by a foreign entity may also decrease the commitment of the military membership base.

Entry into Overseas Markets

USAA has a specific United States military target market.  Offices or representatives in foreign countries would be helpful for those military personnel stationed overseas, but at this point, the company has shown no interest in expanding membership to foreign military forces or any additional membership pools.

Foreign Customs and Regulations

USAA does not have any foreign presence.  It is important that USAA is aware of international banking rules and regulations for those individuals who are doing business on foreign soil.  If they expand their offices to foreign locations, their knowledge of customs will need to expand further.

Exchange Rate

Customers stationed overseas may need to withdraw funds deposited in USAA accounts.  These withdraws may necessitate exchanges based on the local currency.  The exchange rate between the local currency and the United States dollar may provide less purchasing ability for consumers.

Is the organization internationally diversified?  In no, why not? Should the company plan for expansion? Where should they go? Why?

 The company has an extremely limited target market.  They have not captured the entire market, and their percentage share of the market increases every year.  At this point, I would not consider an expansion unless membership growth stagnates.  If this occurs, I would advise USAA to expand membership opportunities to a larger audience that includes individuals in current or former government and civil service positions.  This widening of membership maintains the service to the country limitation, while sharing the benefits of membership.

 If the firm is local, do they export out of the state? To whom? Should they consider exporting or expansion? Why/why not?

 USAA does not export any of their services.  They do not need to consider exportation unless they begin to sell physical products.  An expansion should be considered if profits and growth decline or normalize.

How complex and unpredictable is the organizations environment?  Which environment does your organization exist in?

USAA exists in a stable, complex environment.  There are a large number of external elements present, but changes to these elements are typically gradual and predictable.

Does your organization’s strategies and goals fit their environment?  Circle one of the types in the following categories that you have found your company to portray.Environmental ComplexityAnalyzer with innovation: Strong focus on both exploitation and exploration. Exploits its current position of resource utilization and market position, adopts an active innovation strategy of developing new products. Goes beyond what others do and surveys technology and market changes to look for additional opportunities. Ex/ Xerox

Did your organization align across environment, strategy type, and organizational goals? If no, should the organization align on these factors? If so, how should they do it?

 USAA did not align across environment, strategy type, and organizational goals.  I do not think that USAA needs to align their goals.  The financial services industry typically remains similar.  If changes occur, they do so slowly.  USAA’s on efficiency, effectiveness, and innovation allows it to stay ahead of these goals.   They pride themselves on what they can provide to their customers so this strategy may mean more organizational work, but it will lead to long-term increased chances of success, customer retention, and customer satisfaction.

Works Cited

 Adams, J. (2012, September 1). How USAA Innovates Online Banking. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/btn/25_9/usaa-innovates-online-banking-with-voice-recognition-and-customer-analytics-1052161-1.html

Claessens, S. (2009). Competition in the Financial Sector. International Monetary Fund.

Fortune. (2015). 100 Best Companies to Work For. Retrieved from USAA: http://fortune.com/best-companies/usaa-33/

Labor, U. S. (2016, February 3). Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from Finance and Insurance: NAICS 52: http://www.bls.gov/iag/tgs/iag52.htm

Senate, T. C. (n.d.). Bloomberg/Schumer Financial Services Competitiveness Report.

USAA. (2014, July 8). USAA Awards Suppliers for Innovation, Veteran Support and More. Retrieved from Cartus: https://www.cartus.com/files/3014/0561/4110/USAA_distributed_Supplier_recognition_awards_FINAL_07814.pdf

USAA. (2015). Report to Members. Retrieved from https://content.usaa.com/mcontent/static_assets/Media/report-to-member-2014.pdf?cacheid=1896096673_p: https://content.usaa.com/mcontent/static_assets/Media/report-to-member-2014.pdf?cacheid=1896096673_p

USAA. (2016). Career Areas at USAA. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaajobs.com/career-areas/index.html

USAA. (2016). Environmental Commitment. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/pages/about_usaa_cares_environmental_commitment

USAA. (2016). Join a bank that saves you money. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/pages/bank_main?adid=icgsch46379837-VQ16-c-VQ6-68453810312

USAA. (2016). University Recruiting. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaajobs.com/campus/

USAA. (2016). USAA. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/ent_logon/Logon

USAA. (2016). USAA. Retrieved from FAQs: Banking Branch / ATM Locations: https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/faq_BankWS_BranchATM_Locations_BankFaqL1_index

USAA. (2016). USAA. Retrieved from Let Us Serve You Closer to Home: https://www.usaa.com/inet/pages/usaa_financial_center

USAA. (2016). Who Can Join. Retrieved from USAA: https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/why_choose_usaa_main?showtab=legacyPassDown#

USAA SWOT Analysis

download

SWOT_Page_1

Strengths:

  • USAA is currently ranked #1 in customer service in the bank, credit card, and insurance category by Forrester Research Inc. Without customers, the business would be extinct.  Providing excellent services improves their chances of maintaining current customers as well as gaining new ones.  Research has indicated that retaining customers has a higher value than marketing for new ones.
  • com has rated USAA as 4.5 stars out of 5 for their value for price. This indicates that the majority of clients are happy with the amount they pay in premiums for the service they are receiving.  This metric relates again to retaining current market share.
  • USAA recruits actively from pools of university graduates and prior military. These employees have advanced knowledge and training.  In addition, they provide mentoring programs, internships, and educational benefits to help employees further their careers.  A highly-skilled workforce will provide increased flexibility, cultural knowledge, and ability to adapt.  The wealth of benefits and support to their employees encourages a strong culture and loyalty.
  • USAA has grown each year since their creation. They continue to earn profit each year, which is reinvested into the company or used to reduce premiums for members.  USAA Continues to diversify their services based on the needs of the customers.  The diversification allows them to grow even with their limited target market.
  • USAA focuses on current and prior military and their dependents. The advertising and services are marketed towards their unique needs.
  • USAA continues to lead the insurance world in technological innovations. They were one of the first financial services companies to offer an app and biometric identify verification.

Weaknesses:

  • USAA’s limited target market provides no current opportunities for international growth. Once they reach all prior military and their dependents, there will be no other opportunities for expansion.
  • All financial services companies deal with default issues as well as competitive pricing in order to stay profitable.
  • USAA’s large electronic footprint presents a cybersecurity threat to the company and its customers. They will need to continue to stay abreast of technological changes in order to protect the integrity of their systems.
  • USAA is privately owned and are not required to report their financials with as much scrutiny as publicly traded firms. It might be difficult for them to compare their financial health with other companies based on these discrepancies.

Opportunities:

  • USAA is a fully established financial services company. They have built their reputation on catering only to the needs of prior and current military and their dependents.  They can consider expanding membership opportunities or providing additional services in order to increase revenue.
  • USAA provides most of their services in-house with little contractual relationships with vendors. Partnerships and alliances with other financial services companies may allow them to buy umbrella policies which may further reduce costs for their members.
  • USAA can pursue an initial public offering (IPO) in order to raise additional revenue if necessary for future expansion or function.

Threats:   

  • Financial services companies are typically stand-alone, but recent news demonstrates that mergers are occurring and will continue to do so. These mergers allow the companies to appeal to a broader target market and decreases liability of either company due to shared resources.
  • Natural disasters in areas where USAA maintains home insurance and auto insurance policies can lead to increased losses.
  • The financial services sector is closely monitored by Federal regulations. Compliance often requires extra expenditures and constant oversight.
  • Fluctuations in the economy and tax rates will impact the amount of money individuals have to invest and spend. Less spending means less loans issued and lower interest profits.
  • Competitors duplicate USAA emerging and existing technology in order to stay competitive. When duplicated, USAA no longer holds an advantage.

 References:

Learning at USAA | USAA Career Center. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2016, from https://www.usaajobs.com/life-at-usaa/learning.html

USAA Car Insurance Ratings. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2016, from http://www.insure.com/companies/usaa-car-insurance.html

Welcome to USAA! To get started, please enable cookies. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2016, from https://www.usaa.com/inet/wc/about_usaa_corporate_overview_awards_and_rankings?akredirect=true

Changes in Haven

Breastfeeding

Haven has had an amazing year!  Not only have we been successful, but we have seen lots of changes.  Haven decided to add a full-time lactation consultant to our staff as well as merge businesses with a photographer who specializes in newborn and maternity photos.  We have space in our store for the consultant to meet with parents in a quiet, private space.  Our photography studio has access to a nursing room, restroom, changing station, play area, and snacks to help everyone feel more comfortable.  The photographer is equipped to be mobile in order to commemorate the precious moments of a new baby and departing angels.   Newborn Photography

Our business idea has been so successful, that we were approached for a franchising opportunity.  We didn’t feel like this should be a business run by a corporation.  We wanted to keep it in families, so we decided to expand nationally and internationally with a few friends scattered around the globe.  These are families that feel as passionate as we do about all little ones.

Our organization looks a lot different than it did when we first opened our doors, but we feel it has maintained the close-knit, focused family environment that we want our clients to enjoy and seek out.  Jennifer Young is still the owner of the business and is in charge of all merchandising.  Amy Lachlan and the photographer with Sweet Pea Images are full-time employees who report directly to Jennifer Young.  These individuals assist in the store when they are not providing designated services to the clients.

Updated Organizational Chart

Expanded Org Chart